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On the integration of symbolic and sub-symbolic techniques for XAI: A survey

Roberta Calegari, Giovanni Ciatto, Andrea Omicini
The more intelligent systems based on sub-symbolic techniques pervade our everyday lives, the less human can understand them. This is why symbolic approaches are getting more and more attention in the general effort to make AI interpretable, ex- plainable, and trustable. Understanding the current state of the art of AI techniques integrating symbolic and sub-symbolic ap- proaches is then of paramount importance, nowadays—in particular in the XAI (eXplainable Artificial Intelligence) perspective. This is why this paper provides an overview of the main symbolic/sub-symbolic integration techniques, focussing in particular on those that explicitly target explainable AI systems.
Intelligenza Artificiale,